Parkes – Broken Hill Proposal to Decrease WOLO Temporary Speed Restrictions through the use of Non Destructive SFT Measuring Equipment Feasibility Study 10th to 14th August 2009 Report on D’stresen Equipment 10/09/2009 Rev 0: Draft Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Document Status Rev No. Author Reviewer Date Rev 0: Draft S. Cooper 10 September 2009 Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Figure 1: Site Location Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Summary Max Shuard and Associates were appointed to assist in the implementation of a feasibility study to determine the effectiveness of two non destructive testing devices on a 15km section of track between Parkes and Broken Hill. The objective was to measure 15km of track at nominated intervals on both rails to obtain Stress Free Temperature (SFT) data using D’stresen and Railscan test equipment and the results obtained to be validated using VERSE equipment which has Type Approval for this track configuration. The site selected was chosen to provide as many combinations of track structure as possible. • Timber track interlaced with steel sleepers. • 100% timber sleepers • 100% steel sleepers. • Locations where rail creep has caused sleepers to bunch up and, it is assumed, a low SFT has resulted. The track selected was between 1050.0km and 1065.5km near Kinalung. The trial took place 10th to 14th August 2009 inclusive. The implementation of the project was constrained by the requirement that all three devices should take measurements closely together in time and distance to avoid variations in ambient rail temperature. There should be no rail traffic over a section between readings taken by each device. Due to the different methodology employed by each system, this affected the amount of data collected at each location. Readings taken during the calibration of equipment in the crossing loop revealed that the Stress Free Temperature (SFT) was approximately 22o C, which caused problems during the actual measurements undertaken by both D’stresen and VERSE. D’stresen had problems calibrating due to the limited operating range around the rail SFT. Readings take between 5 and 15 minutes per station. While limited readings were obtained for comparison to the other devices, it is considered the information obtained by D’stresen is within expected values. D’stresen is limited by the requirement to recalibrate for small changes in track structure. Data obtained from the VERSE device was very limited due to delays waiting for the other systems to move sufficiently clear, and then due to rising temperatures causing the rail to be in compression, at which point the VERSE cannot operate. Despite the limited data collected the results obtained from D’stresen are reasonably consistent with VERSE It is recommended that this type of equipment should be operated by staff with an appreciation of the requirement for accurate measurement, and a technical review of results should follow field measurements. As thermometers have such an important role, the number, type and calibration should be chosen to reflect the required accuracy of the final results. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Contents 1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 6 2 Scope of Work:................................................................................................................ 7 3 Track Construction ......................................................................................................... 8 4 Site Selection................................................................................................................... 9 4.1 Site Selection Criteria........................................................................................................ 9 4.2 Test Site Location ............................................................................................................. 9 5 Calibration ..................................................................................................................... 10 5.1 Overview......................................................................................................................... 10 5.2 D’stresen Procedure........................................................................................................ 10 6 Crossing Loop 1065.000km to 1065.500km................................................................. 11 6.1 Objective ......................................................................................................................... 11 6.2 General .......................................................................................................................... 11 6.3 D’stresen......................................................................................................................... 12 6.4 VERSE .......................................................................................................................... 12 7 Main Line 1065.000km to 1065.500km.......................................................................... 13 7.1 Objective ......................................................................................................................... 13 7.2 General .......................................................................................................................... 13 7.3 VERSE .......................................................................................................................... 13 7.4 D’stresen......................................................................................................................... 13 8 Main Line 1050.000km to 1065.000km between Menindee and Kinalung.................. 14 8.1 Objective ......................................................................................................................... 14 8.2 D’stresen......................................................................................................................... 14 8.3 VERSE .......................................................................................................................... 14 9 Observations ................................................................................................................. 15 9.1 Transfield Staff................................................................................................................ 15 9.2 VERSE .......................................................................................................................... 15 9.3 D’stresen......................................................................................................................... 17 9.4 Thermometers................................................................................................................. 18 10 Results........................................................................................................................... 21 11 Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 25 11.1 Achievement of objectives............................................................................................... 25 11.2 D’stresen......................................................................................................................... 25 11.3 VERSE .......................................................................................................................... 25 12 Recommendations ........................................................................................................ 26 12.1 Further Evaluation........................................................................................................... 26 12.2 SFT Device Operation..................................................................................................... 26 Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 1 Introduction Max Shuard and Associates have been appointed to assist in the implementation of a feasibility study to determine the effectiveness of two non destructive testing devices on a 15km section of track between Parkes and Broken Hill, using VERSE measuring equipment as a control device. Following initial meetings between Steve Cooper (Max Shuard and Associates), Ron Hampson (ARTC) Tim Calver (ARTC) and Geoff Nowak (Transfield); telephone / email correspondence with Ralph Zhang (Thermit Australia), Ian Marks and Brent Jury (Jury and Jury Technologies) a draft implementation plan was developed.. A further meeting took place 5th August 2009 between John Furness, Tim Calver, Ronald Hampson and Steve Cooper at which a final plan was formulated. This report should be read in conjunction with the Implementation Plan (Revision 2) dated 6 August 2009. The feasibility trial took place near Broken Hill between Kinalung and Menindee from 10th to 14th August 2009. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 2 Scope of Work: The scope of the study is set out in summary below. Using Railscan and D’stresen proprietary equipment: 1 Calibrate D’stresen and Railscan equipment 2 Measure an average (SFT) value over 0.5km of track on both rails by taking readings at 10m intervals. This procedure was intended to reflect the Railscan method of taking 50 readings over a ‘rail module’. 3 Measure Stress Free Temperature (SFT) spot values at 500m intervals on both rails over a 15km test section (or other distance decided on site). This procedure is intended to reflect the VERSE and D’stresen methods by taking spot readings. 4 To validate the results obtained using VERSE equipment at spot locations selected by the ARTC representative on site. 5 Constraints 5.1 Testing must be completed in the cooler months to ensure rail is in tension (i.e. below SFT) at the time of testing. 5.2 Calibration and testing should be completed consecutively over five days. 5.3 To maximise test time, the site should be close to Broken Hill and preferably be one continuous site, but may be a maximum of three locations. 5.4 Calibration and testing must be conducted using available possession windows and not disrupt traffic. 5.5 Testing must be scheduled when all required resources are available. 5.6 All three devices should take measurements as closely together in time and distance as possible to avoid variations in ambient rail temperature. There should be no rail traffic over a section between readings taken by each device. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 3 Track Construction The predominant track structure over the Parkes to Broken Hill section consists of 107lb or 53kg rail, timber sleepers base plated with dogspike and lockspike fasteners. Rail anchors have been installed in patterns which vary between 25% and 100%. Numerous steel sleepers have been interlaced in a nominal 1 in 4 pattern, but the result is generally random. Trak-Lok resilient clips fasten the rails. Pandrol lock in cast shoulders and ‘e’ clips have been installed on the existing timber sleeper base plates at some locations to provide a resilient fastening system. See Photo 1. Photo 1 Typical Track Configuration Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 4 Site Selection 4.1 Site Selection Criteria The test site was chosen to test as many combinations of track structure as possible within the constraints listed in section 2 above. • Timber track interlaced with steel sleepers. • 100% timber sleepers • 100% steel sleepers. • Locations where rail creep has caused sleepers to bunch up and, it is assumed, a low SFT has resulted. 4.2 Test Site Location The location is approximately 50km from Broken Hill and includes a crossing loop approximately 1km long. The east end of the crossing loop at Kinalung consists of 107lb rail, 100% steel sleepers with Trak-Lok resilient fasteners. Condition is good with clean ballast and full beds. The main line consists of107lb rail, timber sleepers interlaced with steel sleepers in a random pattern. o The track selected is between 1050.0km and 1065.5km. o The track is straight throughout. o There is a short cutting at 1051km o There are numerous multi pipe culverts throughout. o Gradients, from 1050km in the down direction are approximately: 1050km – 1050.7km : Level 1050.7km – 1051.9km: Falling ≈ 1 in 165 1051.9km – 1055.2 km: Level 1055.2 km – 1065.0 km Rising between 1 in 1300 and 1in 270. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 5 Calibration 5.1 Overview Calibration commenced Monday 10th August 2009 with assistance from staff and equipment provided by Transfield. D’stresen worked on the Main Line, operating from a Hi-rail utility. During the day strong winds were encountered with raised dust reducing visibility to about 50m. 5.2 D’stresen Procedure From discussions with Ian Marks, the following requirements / limitations were noted o Calibration is required for different track configurations, and variations in track conditions within a particular track type. o Calibration takes between 4 and 8 hours and consists of two parts:  Track structure inspection  SFT Measurements as rail temperature rises / falls with rail in tension and compression. If track does not go into compression calibration may be difficult to achieve. o Readings are taken at two locations within 20m of each other. As described above, for calibration to be successful the rail must be in both tension and compression. As rail temperatures were low, compression did not occur and calibration was not achieved. Ian Marks stated that planned measurements could still be taken, and once sufficient data had been obtained calibration could be completed. Advice was not received that calibration had been achieved until much later in the week. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 6 Crossing Loop 1065.000km to 1065.500km 6.1 Objective Measure an average SFT value over 0.5km of track on both rails by taking readings at 10m intervals 6.2 General Work commenced Tuesday 11th August. The crossing loop is 100% steel sleepers with Trak-Lok resilient fasteners. See Photo 2 showing the Main Line and Crossing Loop at Kinalung. Photo 2 Loop Consists of 100% Steel Sleepers The implementation plan required measurements to be taken on both rails at 10m intervals. To meet conditions required by Railscan and D’stresen, it was initially programmed that all devices would operate a minimum of 500m apart. Due to the difficulty in meeting this requirement, and further assessment by both parties, the distance was subsequently reduced to approximately 50m, with VERSE maintaining a 100m gap. Other requirements stipulated in the project brief were for measurements by each device to be timed as closely as possible to minimise variations in ambient rail temperature, and to avoid passage of trains between readings. To maximise accuracy, VERSE should follow behind D’stresen and Railscan. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 6.3 D’stresen Readings were taken on both rails at each station. The anticipated rate of approximately 10 minutes a station was not achieved due to difficulty in obtaining data. This was stated to be due to ambient rail temperature higher than SFT causing compressive forces in the rail which exceeded the allowable parameters of the device. Eventually, due to poor progress, measurement in the loop was abandoned after 17 stations had been measured. Following completion of other work on Friday 14th August, D’stresen staff returned to the loop site and took further readings. 6.4 VERSE When the VERSE equipment was set up, difficulties were encountered with the hydraulic jack. The first readings taken generated error messages due to the rail being in compression. Knowing the loop had a very low SFT, this test was also abandoned. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 7 Main Line 1065.000km to 1065.500km 7.1 Objective Measure an average SFT value over 0.5km of track on both rails on the main line by taking readings at 10m intervals 7.2 General The measurement of the Main Line between 1065.000km and 1065.500km took place over Tuesday afternoon 11th and Wednesday 12th August. The main line consists of predominantly timber sleepers, dog spikes and base plates. Steel sleepers with Trak-Lok resilient fasteners are interlaced at a nominal 1 in 4 rate. In practice, the steel sleeper density is quite random. In addition, at a number of locations, Pandrol hook in shoulders and ‘e’ type resilient fasteners have been inserted in the timber sleeper base plates. In an effort to obtain some data from VERSE it was decided on Tuesday to measure the up main rail only. On Wednesday the down main rail was measured. 7.3 VERSE Before the other equipment was transferred from the loop, VERSE was set up on the down main rail at 1065.000km and a reading taken to ensure it was working correctly due to the error messages previously generated. On Tuesday, 4 readings were obtained on the up rail at stn 1 (1065.000km), stn 10, stn 30 and stn 40 (1065.390m) On Wednesday the down main rail was measured at 100m intervals commencing at stn 50 (1065.500km) 7.4 D’stresen Readings were taken on the up rail initially at each station, however after 10 stations at 10m had been measured, it was decided to take readings at 100m intervals. During Tuesday afternoon the up main rail was completed at the revised intervals. On Wednesday the down main rail was measured at 100m intervals. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 8 Main Line 1050.000km to 1065.000km between Menindee and Kinalung 8.1 Objective Measure spot SFT readings at 1km and ½ km posts This work took place Thursday 13th and Friday 14th August 2009. In addition to the ½ km measurements, an additional location was chosen at approximately 1051.870km which was estimated to be the lowest point in a vertical curve, and would be expected to provide a low SFT due to rail bunching. This expectation was reinforced by signs of sleeper movement. Photo 3 shows the test site location. The white posts are the rail creep monuments at ½ km intervals. Photo 3 Test Site at 1051.870km 8.2 D’stresen D’stresen averaged approximately 25 minutes a station (both rails) on Thursday but reduced this to about 15 minutes a station on Friday. Measurements were taken between 1050km and 1065km. 8.3 VERSE Due to warmer weather, VERSE was only able to complete 3 measurements on Thursday and one measurement on Friday before the rail went into compression. Transfield staff spent the remaining time taking creep measurements at the 1km and ½ km posts. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 9 Observations 9.1 Transfield Staff The Transfield staff assigned to the project led by Geoff Thompson were very cooperative and helpful. 9.2 VERSE Photo 4 VERSE 30m of rail is unfastened and at 10m each side of the measuring point is placed on blocks. A load transducer and displacement transducer are connected to the main panel as is a Radix portable computer. The Radix computer allows data to be input and calculates and stores the SFT. The measurements between the lifting blocks and the lift point are recorded (inner span) as are the overall lengths of unfastened rail (outer spans). The height of rail is measured with a vernier calliper and recorded. Up to 3 rail temperature values are input before and after each measurement. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com The lifting frame is placed in position on a sleeper and the lifting clamp attached to the rail (See Photo 4). This device functions by lifting a section of rail and measuring the force and displacement at numerous stages of the lift cycle. The lift cycle is repeated 3 times and an average SFT is calculated. Photo 5 VERSE On completion the data is stored in a .bin file and can be downloaded to a computer via the proprietary software. Photo 5 shows VERSE operation during the lifting phase. The accuracy claimed by VERSE is ± 0.2o C with a standard deviation of 1.3o C. Input errors are 0.1o C per cm for span measurements, and 1o C per 1o C error in ambient rail temperature input. VERSE cannot be used when a rail is in compression. Each reading takes approximately 30 minutes including preparation and reinstatement of the track, however increased resources can speed the process. During the trial it was discovered that the two bimetallic coil type thermometers had initially been consistently misread placing doubt on the accuracy of the final SFT produced until the error was detected and corrected. When the VERSE files were down loaded to computer, it was noted that in one file the rail height input was 145mm. The file was unlocked and the rail height corrected to 154mm as this was the rail height recorded in adjacent measurements. When the SFT was recalculated, the SFT changed from 34.3o C to 29.1o C. This corrected value has been used in the graph shown in Fig 5 below. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 9.3 D’stresen This device uses an electric motor with an offset weight to vibrate the rail head at a low frequency. A ‘tuner bar’ mounted on the rail head approximately 680mm distant has an accelerometer mounted on the end, which measures the amplitude of the vibration. Photo 6 shows the D’stresen general arrangement when set up, the thermometer attached to the rail web on the extreme left. Data is input to a computer via a cable as is the ambient rail temperature measured by a thermocouple thermometer attached to the web of the rail. Proprietary software calculates the SFT. Photo 6: D’stresen Arrangement Photo 7 D’stresen Tuner Bar Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Photo 7 shows the tuner bar and accelerometer clamped to the rail. The accuracy of the device is not stated in the available documentation, but ± 2o C has been stated. The range of temperature at which the instrument can operate was advised to be: Concrete Track 5 – 10o C in compression and 15o C in tension. Mixed Steel / Timber 10 – 15o C in compression and 15o C in tension. The device has therefore a relatively small tolerance for variations in temperature and track structure, and this tolerance resulted in a failure to calibrate the device until sufficient data had been collected over several days. Spot measurements can take between 5 and 10 minutes per rail. 9.4 Thermometers As the potential error in the calculated SFT is directly related to any error in ambient rail temperature readings, these were monitored where practical during the trial. The control thermometer was a Thermit brand bimetallic coil magnetic thermometer supplied by ARTC. Whilst the accuracy of this was not known, it was used to compare readings with the thermometers used with the other devices. There are insufficient readings to comment on the accuracy of the various thermometers, however it can be concluded that the variation in readings obtained does vary up to 2 – 3o C on average and up to 6 – 8o C in extremes, with the variation in the VERSE thermometers increasing with temperature. Errors in ambient rail temperature input will have a 1:1 effect on the SFT calculated. Photo 8 Variation in Temperature Readings – VERSE Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com The VERSE thermocouple thermometer showed the greatest variation in temperature, and it may be significant that the method of attachment is by spring clamp to the foot of the rail (Photo 9). As the clamp is the contact point for measurement, it was noted the base of the clamp could be in contact with ballast, which can be significantly colder than the actual rail. Also, as it projected below the foot of the rail it would be subject to any air flow which could also have a cooling effect. Photo 9 VERSE Thermocouple Thermometer Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com The results of comparative readings are tabulated below. Recorded Rail Temperatures Date Time ARTC VERSE D’stresen Railscan Bimetallic 1 Bimetallic 2 Electro The’couple Device The’couple Device The’couple 1 The’couple 2 10/08/09 24 21.7 23.0 11/08/09 8:30 17.0 14.0 17.0 11/08/09 14:20 25 25.6 27.9 11/08/09 15:20 23 15.2 16.4 12/08/09 9:00 17 12/08/09 9:20 20 17.5 18.8 12/08/09 9:30 20 19.5 12/0809 10:20 23 17 17 19.0 12/08/09 10:45 25 25.8 25.6 12/08/09 27 22 26 22.4 13/08/09 9:50 19 16 17 18.1 13/08/09 10:48 21 13/08/09 12:50 28 13/08/09 13:43 31 13/08/09 15:18 29 14/08/09 8:55 16 13 14 14.2 14/08/09 10:00 27 25 25 21.4 14/08/09 10:30 31 29 29 22.3 14/08/09 11:29 37 35.1 36.4 14/08/09 16:10 27.3 Table 1:Recorded Rail Temperatures By The Various Devices Compared With ARTC Control Thermometer. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 10 Results The results of each test are shown in graphical form for each location. There are insufficient data from VERSE to confirm the accuracy of D’stresen. Without a definitive control measurement, statements regarding the accuracy of the device must be limited to general observations. Rail Creep Measurements Kinalung to Menindee 1050km to 1065km -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 1050.000 1051.000 1052.000 1053.000 1054.000 1055.000 1056.000 1057.000 1058.000 1059.000 1060.000 1061.000 1062.000 1063.000 1064.000 1065.000 km Rail Creep (mm) Up Rail Down Rail Figure 2: Rail Creep Measurements recorded 11th to 14th August 2009. (-)ve values show creep towards Sydney. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Kinalung Loop Down Rail 1065.000km to 1065.500km 10 15 20 25 30 1065.000 1065.020 1065.040 1065.060 1065.080 1065.100 1065.120 1065.140 1065.160 1065.180 1065.200 1065.220 1065.240 1065.260 1065.280 1065.300 1065.320 1065.340 1065.360 1065.380 1065.400 1065.420 1065.440 1065.460 1065.480 1065.500 km SFT Deg C D'stresen D'stresen Average Average SFT 23 deg C Figure 3: Kinalung Loop Down Rail Note - Rail SFT Following Cut During Calibration Estimated At 22o C To 23o C Kinalung Loop Up Rail 1065.000km to 1065.500km 10 15 20 25 30 1065.000 1065.020 1065.040 1065.060 1065.080 1065.100 1065.120 1065.140 1065.160 1065.180 1065.200 1065.220 1065.240 1065.260 1065.280 1065.300 1065.320 1065.340 1065.360 1065.380 1065.400 1065.420 1065.440 1065.460 1065.480 1065.500 km SFT Deg C D'stresen VERSE D'stresen Average Average SFT 23 deg C Figure 4: Kinalung Loop Up Rail SFT Values Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Kinalung Down Main Rail 1065.000km to 1065.500km 20 25 30 35 40 1065.000 1065.020 1065.040 1065.060 1065.080 1065.100 1065.120 1065.140 1065.160 1065.180 1065.200 1065.220 1065.240 1065.260 1065.280 1065.300 1065.320 1065.340 1065.360 1065.380 1065.400 1065.420 1065.440 1065.460 1065.480 1065.500 km SFT Deg C D'stresen VERSE VERSE Average D'stresen Average Average SFT 31 deg C Average SFT 34 deg C Figure 5: Kinalung Down Main Rail SFT Values Note – VERSE value at 1065.000km is corrected for rail height (see 9.2 above) Kinalung Up Main Rail 1065.000km to 1065.500km 20 25 30 35 40 1065.000 1065.020 1065.040 1065.060 1065.080 1065.100 1065.120 1065.140 1065.160 1065.180 1065.200 1065.220 1065.240 1065.260 1065.280 1065.300 1065.320 1065.340 1065.360 1065.380 1065.400 1065.420 1065.440 1065.460 1065.480 1065.500 km SFT Deg C D'stresen SFT VERSE SFT D'stresen Average VERSE Average Average SFT 32 deg C Average SFT 31 deg C Figure 6: Kinalung UP Main Rail SFT Values Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com Menindee - Kinalung Down Main Rail 1050km - 1065km 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1050.000 1050.500 1051.000 1051.500 1051.870 1052.000 1052.500 1053.000 1053.500 1054.000 1054.500 1055.000 1055.500 1056.000 1056.500 1057.000 1057.500 1058.000 1058.500 1059.000 1059.500 1060.000 1060.500 1061.000 1061.500 1062.000 1062.500 1063.000 1063.500 1064.000 1064.500 1065.000 1065.500 km SFT Deg C D'stresen VERSE 1051.870 Additional Test site Figure 7: Menindee to Kinalung Down Main Rail spot SFT Values Additional Test site at 1051.870km indicated – see 8.1 above Menindee - Kinalung Up Main Rail 1050km - 1065km 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1050.000 1050.500 1051.000 1051.500 1051.870 1052.000 1052.500 1053.000 1053.500 1054.000 1054.500 1055.000 1055.500 1056.000 1056.500 1057.000 1057.500 1058.000 1058.500 1059.000 1059.500 1060.000 1060.500 1061.000 1061.500 1062.000 1062.500 1063.000 1063.500 1064.000 1064.500 1065.000 km SFT Deg C D'stresen VERSE 1051.870 Additional Test site Figure 8: Menindee to Kinalung Up Main Rail spot SFT Values Additional Test site at 1051.870km indicated – see 8.1 above Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 11 Conclusion 11.1 Achievement of objectives The requirement to keep the three devices in relatively close contact has resulted in insufficient data collection to achieve a definitive comparison with a base value obtained with VERSE As such, the accuracy of each device cannot be confirmed The values provided by D’stresen are reasonably consistent with VERSE to warrant further investigation of this device. Discussions with the operators of both D’stresen and Railscan eventually obtained an opinion that a train passing over the track between measurements was not critical, nor was the possible change in ambient temperature. Had this conclusion been reached before the trial, a more efficient use of resources could have been planned. 11.2 D’stresen The results obtained from D’stresen appear close to expectations, however the restrictive operating temperature range and specific calibration requirements for different track structures lessen its potential. 11.3 VERSE While this device has type approval and was not the subject of the trial, some comments are offered. The thermometers provided with the device should be checked for accuracy and the bimetallic coil type replaced with thermometers with one degree graduations as the two degree graduations are confusing and can be misread. Incorrect data input can have a significant effect on the results obtained as noted earlier with rail height measurements. A valid comment was made by Geoff Thompson that if a module is measured by VERSE at short intervals on typical timber track, there is a potential to reduce the integrity of the track due to removing and replacing dog spikes without reboring. The limitation that the device cannot measure a SFT when the rail is in compression limits the effective timeframe for its use to cooler periods of the day or night. Steve Cooper Consulting Pty Ltd ABN 31 134 293 860 20 Caulfield Crescent, Paralowie, SA 5108 Phone: 0488 912 400 Fax: 08 8285 1012 E-mail: Cooper_S_J@bigpond.com 12 Recommendations 12.1 Further Evaluation Should further evaluation of any of these devices be considered appropriate, it is recommended that any future trial is planned around the known limitations and work rates of each device. The requirement that each device must take readings within close proximity to each other in time should be reviewed taking into account the opinion offered by the operators of both D’stresen and Railscan that a train passing over the track between readings and changes in temperature would not have an adverse effect on the quality of the final result. 12.2 SFT Device Operation The number, type and calibration of the thermometers used with any method used to determine SFT should be reviewed considering that an incorrect ambient rail temperature input will have a direct effect on the SFT calculated. It is recommended that some technical supervision of the operation and recording of the results is implemented.